MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

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MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by Touchet » Wed 08 Jul 2009, 23:06

EDIT: Vaihdoin otsaketta käsittämään laajemman aiheen toisen postauksen myötä.

Oksitosiini on nisäkkäillä esiintyvä hormoni, jolla on hyvin merkittävä ja laaja rooli sekä perifeerisessä hermostossa että aivoissa. Intranasaalisesti annetun oksitosiinin on todettu mm. lievittävän pelkoa ja lisäävän luottamusta sekä anteliaisuutta. Oksitosiinin ja mm. äidillisen rakkauden sekä taipumusten sitoutua moni- tai yksiavioisesti on todettu liittyvän yhteen. Hyvin, hyvin merkittävä välittäjäaine siis. (Ks. lisää englanninkielisen wikipedian oksitosiiniartikkelista.)

Viime aikoina myös MDMA:n vaikutuksia käyttäytymiseen on alettu tutkimaan tältä kantilta - ja vaikuttaa siltä, että käyttäjien kokemat prososiaaliset "rakastan kaikkia"-fiilikset ovat ainakin osittain (ellei täysin) oksitosiinivälitteisiä (ja tämä antaa vankempaa tieteellistä pohjaa MDMA-terapian revisioimiselle):

Dumont & al. - Increased oxytocin concentrations and prosocial feelings in humans after ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) administration.
Social Neuroscience, Vol. 4, Issue 4, 359 - 366
MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or “ecstasy”) is a recreationally used drug with remarkable and characteristic prosocial effects. In spite of abundant attention in the scientific literature, the mechanism of its prosocial effects has not been elucidated in humans. Recently, research in animals has suggested that the neuropeptide oxytocin may induce these effects. In a double blind, randomized, crossover, and placebo-controlled study in 15 healthy volunteers we assessed blood oxytocin and MDMA concentrations and subjective prosocial effects after oral administration of 100 mg MDMA or placebo. MDMA induced a robust increase of blood oxytocin concentrations and an increase of subjective prosocial feelings. Within subjects, the variations in these feelings were significantly and positively correlated with variation in oxytocin levels, and the correlations between these feelings and oxytocin were significantly stronger than those between these feelings and blood MDMA levels. MDMA induces oxytocin release in humans, which may be involved in the characteristic prosocial effects of ecstasy.
A plausible mechanism of action for oxytocin-mediated prosocial effects was reported in a study that showed that oxytocin attenuates the amygdala response to novel social encounters (Baumgartner et al., 2008). In addition, a recent report demonstrated that attenuation of the amygdala inhibits excitatory flow from the amygdala to brain stem sites mediating peripheral fear response (Huber, Veinante, & Stoop, 2005). For the case of MDMA, oxytocin may thus reduce anxiety related to social interaction, effectively promoting social behavior (Amaral et al., 2003; Rosen & Donley, 2006). When this is combined with its stimulating effects and mild enhancement of sensory input, it is not surprising that MDMA has become such a popular ‘‘club drug’’ (Dumont & Verkes, 2006; Vollenweider et al., 2002). Although the results of animal research strongly support our conclusions, the findings of the present study should be considered exploratory and some limitations should be addressed.
Firstly, we measured oxytocin concentrations in blood, whereas cerebral spinal fluid oxytocin concentrations are expected to provide a more direct relation to the central effects. Indeed, a delay between maximal subjective effects (tmax 60 min) and measured peak plasma oxytocin concentration (tmax 110 min) was observed. Congruent with this finding, several reports have suggested that the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland into the peripheral circulation is preceded and driven by central, autostimulatory oxytocin release in the parvoventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus (Ludwig & Leng, 2006; Armstrong, 2007; Amico, Tenicela, Johnston, & Robinson, 1983). However, this remains speculative as the relationship between peripheral and central oxytocin release has not yet been defined (Landgraf & Neumann, 2004).
Secondly, we assessed subjective prosocial effects. Future studies should employ objective measures of social interaction such as the Trust Game or Dictator Game (Sanfey, 2007) to verify that subjects not only perceive themselves as being friendlier but in fact show increased social behavior.
Thirdly, to reduce the variance in observed oxytocin concentrations, future studies should also consider dosing MDMA according to body weight, rather then administering a fixed dose. Moreover, oxytocin concentrations should be assessed concurrently with MDMA and subjective assessments and between 20 and 95 min, where the current study did not assess oxytocin concentrations but did find the most pronounced subjective prosocial effects, to assess the onset of peripheral oxytocin level elevation and its relation to prosocial effects.
Lastly, although our results suggest that oxytocin is involved in MDMA’s prosocial effects in humans, these results remain tentative as the current design cannot determine whether oxytocin really mediated MDMA’s prosocial effects. This should be verified in an MDMA interaction study using an oxytocin receptor antagonist such as Atosiban (Uvnas-Moberg, Bruzelius, Alster, & Lundeberg, 1993), although several issues regarding oxytocin receptor antagonism remain (Chini & Manning, 2007).
Johansen & Krebs - How could MDMA (ecstasy) help anxiety disorders? A neurobiological rationale
Journal of Psychopharmacology, Vol. 23, No. 4, 389-391 (2009)
1) MDMA increases oxytocin levels, which may strengthen the therapeutic alliance;
2) MDMA increases ventromedial prefrontal activity and decreases amygdala activity, which may improve emotional regulation and decrease avoidance and
3) MDMA increases norepinephrine release and circulating cortisol levels, which may facilitate emotional engagement and enhance extinction of learned fear associations.
Thus, MDMA has a combination of pharmacological effects that, in a therapeutic setting, could provide a balance of activating emotions while feeling safe and in control, as described in case reports of MDMA-augmented psychotherapy.
"Jos ihmismieli on ihmeellisin asia mitä maa päällään kantaa, pyrkimys tutkia narkoottisten ja stimuloivien aineiden psykofysiologisen vaikutuksen syvyyksiä saa tämän ihmeen vaikuttamaan vieläkin suuremmalta."
— Professori Louis Lewin, 1924

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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by Touchet » Wed 22 Jul 2009, 13:22

Vancouver Observerin artikkeli MDMA-terapiasta: Healing severe trauma with MDMA

Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies on lähettänyt USA:n Elintarvike- ja lääkelaitos FDA:lle hakemuksen mahdollisesta MDMA-hoitoprotokollasta (tämä tapahtui MAPS:n järjestämän viikon mittaisen asiaa käsittelevän seminaarin yhteydessä):
MDMA Administration in a Therapeutic Setting in People Who Have Completed the MAPS Training Program for Therapists Learning to Conduct MDMA-Assisted Psychotherapy Research in Subjects with PTSD
Preparatory Session (Visit 1)
The investigator will inquire about any possible changes in the participant’s health to
ensure that they continue to meet eligibility criteria and if applicable, will confirm that
they have appropriately tapered off of medications. After eligibility is confirmed the
participant will be considered enrolled and will be issued a subject number. The
participant will undergo a 90-minute preparatory session with the investigators at their
offices the day prior to the MDMA session, in part to model the sequence of events that
an individual receiving the therapy in a clinical treatment trial would experience and in
part to reduce the likelihood of psychological distress during the MDMA session. The
preparation session will follow the format used in current studies of MDMA-assisted
psychotherapy.
The participant and investigators will discuss goals for the MDMA session and will
review what will happen during the MDMA session, following standard procedures and
techniques discussed in the sponsor-developed treatment manual. However, these will be
adapted for the present context in which the subject does not have a psychiatric disorder,
The investigators and participant will discuss the fact that it is not possible to predict the
content of the MDMA session, and that specific psychological issues may arise in the
course of self exploration stimulated by the MDMA. Participants will be reminded that
difficult emotions, including grief, rage and fear or panic, may arise during MDMAassisted
psychotherapy sessions, and that sometimes the process can produce surprising
and profound experiences even in people without any psychiatric conditions.
If a participant would like another individual present during the MDMA session, a
meeting between the investigators and that individual will be scheduled during the
introductory session. The introductory session will be recorded to audio and video. The
investigators will supply the participant with a set of instructions and restrictions for
conduct 24 hours prior to receiving MDMA, including restrictions on food and alcohol
consumption. Participants must agree to take nothing by mouth except alcohol-free
liquids after 12:00 A.M. (midnight) the evening before the MDMA session. Participants
must also refrain from the use of any psychoactive drug, with the exception of caffeine or
nicotine, within 24 hours of each MDMA session. Participants must not use caffeine or
nicotine for 2 hours before and 6 hours after the dose of MDMA. All SAEs will be
recorded from the time the participant is enrolled at Visit 1.

MDMA Session (Visit 2)
On the day of the MDMA session, the participant will arrive approximately one to one
and a half hours prior to the MDMA session. Continuing eligibility will be confirmed
and a urine drug screening and, if appropriate, a urine pregnancy test will be performed.
If the subject continues to meet criteria and the participant reports that he/she followed
appropriate rules and restrictions, the session will proceed; a positive pregnancy screen is
cause for withdrawal from the protocol, a positive drug screen will be reviewed by the
investigator and may be cause for delaying drug administration to a later time,
rescheduling the session to a later date, or withdrawing the participant from the study.
The investigators will review procedures for the MDMA session as they would for an
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research session. The investigators will record the entire
session to video and audio. The session will last for eight hours or longer, followed by an
overnight stay at the study site.
The investigators will follow standardized techniques and procedures for an MDMAassisted
psychotherapy research session as described in the treatment manual used for
training, including familiarizing the participant with the space and equipment, and
reviewing session goals and the logistics of the session. Participants will complete the
SUD just prior to initial dose administration.
At approximately 10:00 A.M., participants will receive the initial dose of 125 mg MDMA
along with a glass of water. The participant will sit or recline on comfortable furnishings,
and there will be eyeshades and a program of music available if the participant wishes to
use them. The participant will be encouraged to spend much of the time focusing
attention on their inner experience without talking, but may speak to the investigators
whenever they wish, and will receive guidance and support as needed. If the subject has
not spoken within an hour, the investigators will inquire briefly about their experience.
Blood pressure and pulse will be measured at the outset of the experimental session, once
every 15 minutes for the first 6 hours of the MDMA-assisted session and every 30
minutes for another 2 hours. More frequent measures will be taken if the established
thresholds of 160 systolic, 110 diastolic or pulse 110 are exceeded. Participant body
temperature will be measured via tympanic thermometer and participants will complete
the SUD every 60 minutes, until the session is over, allowing a window of plus 30
minutes to fit into the psychotherapy process where a natural break occurs. If necessary,
the investigators can make a greater number of measurements as their clinical judgment
dictates. The investigators will record any spontaneously reported side effects during the
session.
A supplemental dose of 62.5 mg MDMA, which is half the initial dose, will be administered
approximately 1.5 to 2.5 hours after the initial dose upon mutual agreement between
the investigators and participant.
A support-individual who has previously agreed to remain with the participant during the
MDMA session may arrive during the session.
The investigators will remain with the participant until the physical and psychological
effects of the session have substantially subsided and the subject is judged to be in a
stable condition and appears to have returned to baseline mental status. The investigators
will end recording to video when they have established that the participant returned to
baseline function or is very close to doing so.
The participant will remain at the study site overnight, in a comfortably furnished suite
that allows for accompaniment by a significant other, friend or attendant. An attendant
will remain with any participants who are unwilling or unable to locate another individual
to stay with them at the study site during the overnight stay. The attendant will be of the
same sex as the participant, and he or she will be trained for assisting in this protocol.
Attendants will be selected for their ability to act as reliable and compassionate
attendants to participants while allowing participants room for introspection or further
self-exploration as needed. All participants will receive instructions for contacting one of
the investigators if needed, via telephone or 24-hour pager.
Participants will be instructed not to use caffeine or nicotine for 6 hours after the dose of
MDMA. Spontaneously reported side effects, AEs of concern to the participant, and AEs
requiring a doctor’s visit will be collected starting on the day of the MDMA session
through the seventh telephone daily telephone call. All SAEs will be recorded.

Integrative Session (Visit 3)
On the morning after the MDMA session, the participant will meet with both
investigators during a 90-minute integrative therapy session to discuss their experience of
the MDMA session. The discussion may include processing any thoughts, feelings or
memories that arose during the session, addressing any goals set at the start of the
session, and relating the MDMA session to anything the participant learned about
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy research prior to the session, including information
gleaned from the training program. Whenever possible the investigators and participant
will attempt to follow the procedures for integration sessions described in the treatment
manual. The integrative session will be recorded to audio and video. If the participant
has generated a narrative report of their experience during the MDMA session and wishes
to share it with the investigators, they may do so at this time. It will not be collected it is
only for personal reflection. This is expected to take between ten and 30 minutes.
Likewise, participants may use other means of expression, as visual art, to represent their
experience.
The participant must have a pre-arranged ride from the study site to the place where she
or he is residing, and if the participant has been unable to arrange transport, then the
investigators will assist the participant in locating a ride to the location where the
participant is staying.
If the participant confronted unexpectedly intense or disturbing material during the
MDMA session, the investigators will provide means of continued contact throughout
this day as needed. The integrative telephone contact schedule will be reviewed and
additional integrative sessions with the participant may be scheduled, if needed.
Spontaneously reported side effects, AEs of concern to the participant, AEs requiring a
doctor’s visit and concomitant medications for treatment of AEs will be collected. All
SAEs will be recorded.

Daily Integrative Telephone Contact for Seven days after MDMA Session
The investigator will contact the participant daily for 7 days after the MDMA session.
The integrative telephone contact will be for a brief check-in lasting 5 to 15 minutes, or
as long as necessary to address any participant’s concerns and to assess participant
well-being. Additional telephone contact can be initiated at the request of the
investigators or participant.

Integrative Telephone Contact 1- and 2-months post MDMA Session
The investigator will contact the participant 1 and 2 months after the MDMA session.
Integrative telephone contact will be for a brief check-in lasting 5 to 15 minutes, but with
duration permitted to last as long as necessary to address any participants concerns and to
assess the participant’s general well-being, whether their MDMA experience affected
their conducting therapy and whether the experience matched their expectations.
AEs of concern to the participant and concomitant medications for treatment of AEs will
be collected. All SAEs will be recorded.
"Jos ihmismieli on ihmeellisin asia mitä maa päällään kantaa, pyrkimys tutkia narkoottisten ja stimuloivien aineiden psykofysiologisen vaikutuksen syvyyksiä saa tämän ihmeen vaikuttamaan vieläkin suuremmalta."
— Professori Louis Lewin, 1924

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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by Dexma » Thu 23 Jul 2009, 18:56

Mietin juuri jos tämän tyyppisiä metodeja käytettäisiin normaalissa psykedeelien ottamisessa. Juurikin yksi päivä ennen trippiä käydään läpi tavotteita sun muuta, seuraavana päivänä trippi ja sitten mietittäisiin pitkään mitä siitä kokemuksesta saatiin irti..

Itselleni ehkä tekisi juuri hyvää tälläinen ehkä astetta järsteltympi tapa... hmm.
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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by tRip » Sat 01 Aug 2009, 23:33

Tuli vastaan teksti, jonka mukaan oksitosiini liittyisi myös autismiin.. asiaa joskus tutkailin, mutta kiinnostus joko lopahti, tai sitten en enää muista omaksumaani tietoa.. Pitänee perehtyä asiaan taas uudelleen.

mutta jokatapauksessa..
Kyky kiintyä on välttämätön ihmisten sosiaalisten suhteiden muodostukselle. Sosiaalisen käyttäytymisen häiriöt johtavat elämänlaadun heikkenemiseen psykopatologisiin tiloihin. Muilla nisäkkäillä neuropeptidit oksitosiini (OXT) ja arginiininen (?) vasopressiini (AVP) ovat keskeisessä asemassa kompleksisen sosiaalisen käytöksen (kuten kiintymyssuhteiden, sosiaalisen tunnistamisen ja aggression) yhteydessä. Erityisesti OXT vähentää käytöksellisiä ja hormonaalisia reaktioita sosiaaliseen stressiin ja auttaa eläimiä voittamaan luontaisen läheisyyden kaihtamistaipumuksensa ja hillitsemään defensiivistä käytöstä. AVP liittyy läheisesti koirastyyppiseen sosiaaliseen käytökseen kuten aggressioon ja pariutumiskäytökseen.

Tämänhetkisen tutkimuksen mukaan näillä ”prososiaalisilla” hormoneilla on pitkälti samat tehtävät ihmisen sosiaalisessa käytöksessä ja reagoinnissa. Autismin kirjoon kuuluvilla on poikkeavuuksia oksitosiinitasojen ja –reseptorien kohdalla negatiiviseen suuntaan. Nenän kautta annettu oksitosiini parantaa mielen teoriaa vaativaa päättelyä ja katsekontaktia, alentaa sosiaalisia stressireaktioita ja auttaa vastaanottamaan sosiaalista tukea (ts. muiden ihmisten antaman myönteisen palautteen vaikutus tehostuu). Toisin sanoen se muuttaa autismin kirjon henkilöiden käytöstä avoimempaan, luottavaisempaan ja sosiaalisesti aloitteellisempaan suuntaan: väistämisreaktiot heikkenevät ja lähestyminen helpottuu. Aivoveriesteen ylittävän oksitosiini-nenäsumutteen terapeuttisia mahdollisuuksia autismin ja sosiaalisten fobioiden sekä ahdistuneisuuden ja stressireaktioiden yhteydessä tutkitaan parhaillaan.

Lyhyesti sanoen: olennot reagoivat toisiinsa synnynnäisesti mahdollisina uhkina, ja tämä aiheuttaa lievän stressipiikin (laukaisee kortikosteroidien vai mitä ne nyt olivatkaan erityksen). Oksitosiinin tehtävä on sammuttaa tämä stressi ja mahdollistaa lähentyminen lajitovereihin sekä vieläpä tehdä se palkitsevaksi. Autismin kirjoon kuuluvilla on liian vähän oksitosiinireseptoreita ja /tai oksitosiinia erittyy liian vähän, jolloin sosiaalisuus ei ole tarpeeksi palkitsevaa suhteessa sen aiheuttamaan stressiin, jolloin ihmisestä tulee eristäytyvä ilman mitään uskomuksellistakin ("olen huono ihminen") pohjaa. Sen sijaan sellaisia uskomuksia voi kyllä syntyä, jos reaktioitaan rationalisoi.

Oksitosiini voisi vähentää meidän lievästi autististen tapausten (siis meidän "as-piirteisten") sosiaalista kuormittuvuutta ja parantaa stressinsietokykyä. Oksitosiini laskee verenpainetta ja sydämen syketiheyttä (toisin kuin stimulantit), joten siitä saattaisivat hyötyä nekin joiden keho ei stimuja kestä. Saapahan nähdä pääsenkö tuota kokeilemaan ennen kuin oma "parasta ennen"-päiväykseni kerkiää umpeutua...
Keep it unreal.

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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by Skeeblew » Sun 06 Jun 2010, 03:16

Tuskin suomessa päin ainakaan käytetään näitä kyseisiä substansseja psykoterapiassa vai onko tosiaan näin? :shock:

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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by Bateman » Sat 12 Jun 2010, 03:00

Ehkä nois melko pitkis tekstinpätkissä asia mainittiinkin, mutta eikös MDMA:ta aikoinaan (ennenkuin siitä tuli laiton hUUme ~joka helvetin paikassa) käytetty myös pariterapiassa apuna (lähinnä kai Yhdysvalloissa)? Oli vissiin melko hyväkin apu siinä puuhassa.
you see them on the freeway, it don't look like a lot of fun
but don't you try to fight it; "an idea who's time has come"

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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by lonecell » Mon 14 Jun 2010, 14:49

Posttraumaattisen stressioireyhtymän hoidossahan sitä ainakin tutkitaan useammassakin paikassa. http://www.maps.org/mdma/

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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by Kirwa » Thu 06 Oct 2011, 21:32

Laitoin jo tonne yhteen threadiin tän dokumentin, mutta vielä tänne incase joku ei törmää siihen tuolla; http://areena.yle.fi/video/1315511829091.

Dokumentti kertoo mielenvoimasta ja dokumentin loppuosa käsittelee MDMA:n käyttöä PTSD:n (Posttraumatic stress disorder) hoitoon.

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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by tRip » Fri 04 May 2012, 03:03

Ajattelin nyt pastee suoraan frendiltä tulleen mailin:
En tiedä tiesitkö mutta MAPS on polkemassa käyntiin tutkimusta MDMA:n mahdollisista terapeuttisista vaikutuksista autisteihin ja aspergerin syndroomaisiin.
http://www.maps.org/media/view/mdma-ass ... earch_tea/

60-luvulla on myös testattu happoa autisteille ja osittain on saatu hyviä tuloksia mutta se oli siihen aikaan niin kokeellista ettei niistä voi oikein vetää mitään tieteellisiä johtopäätöksiä. Intuitiivisesti tuntuisi kuitenkin olevan kyseessä päivän selvä asia. Tässä tiivistelmä aiheesta
Psychedelics & MDMA as Potential Supplements to Treat High-Functioning Autism & Asperger’s Syndrome - Alicia Danforth, M.A.
http://vimeo.com/16776794

Tosta uudesta tutkimuksesta on tullut kans pari hyvää artikkelia nettiin
http://santacruz.patch.com/articles/can ... eat-autism
http://www.alternet.org/drugs/153334/ca ... eat_autism
Niissä huomion arvoinen kohta:
If you or someone you know has heard of MDMA having either positive or negative effects on symptoms of autism spectrum disorders or Asperger’s syndrome, MAPS would like to hear from you. Please contact MAPS Lead Clinical Research Associate Berra Yazar-Klosinski, Ph.D., at berra@maps.org, if you have any information about this.

Ajattelin et jos sua vaikka kiinnostaa kirjottaa tonne. Kandee kirjottaa varmaan kans psykedeeleistä jos yhtään siltä tuntuu vaikka mainitsevat nimenomaan MDMA:n. Se nyt kai on sellanen poliittisesti hyväksytympi vaihtoehto vaikka siinä lienee enemmän fyysisiä riskitekijöitä, niin ne nyt joutuu alottamaan siitä ja kun sillä on jo niin hyvä maine PTSD:n hoitotutkimuksista.
Kyllä, ajattelin kirjottaa omakohtaisia kokemuksia. Tieteen hyväksi o/
Keep it unreal.

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Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by Aukikco » Tue 11 Sep 2012, 11:18

Asiaan liittyen myös https://www.danforthresearch.com/
My name is Alicia Danforth, and I am a PhD student in clinical psychology at the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology in Palo Alto, California. My area of interest is investigating the therapeutic potential of psychedelic medicines and similar compounds, including their risks and benefits. MDMA, also known as the drug "Ecstasy," has been shown to promote prosocial feelings, aspects of empathy, and increased self-insight for some individuals. MDMA has also been investigated as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, no studies which assess the therapeutic potential of MDMA as a support for autism spectrum social skills challenges or common co-occurring problems, such as anxiety and depression, have been published.

If you meet the criteria listed below, I invite you to participate in a survey study for my doctoral dissertation on what experiences with MDMA/Ecstasy are like for adults with autism and Asperger's Syndrome. You are not required to have taken Ecstasy or any other recreational drug to participate. This study will compare responses from individuals who have tried Ecstasy and individuals who have not tried Ecstasy.

Your participation in this study may contribute to your understanding of the influences that MDMA/Ecstasy experiences have had in your life, which may include changes in relationships with others and altered self-image. The study results may increase knowledge about how people with Autism and Asperger's Syndrome respond to MDMA and experience life in general.

First, you will also be asked to complete an online version of the 50-question Autism Quotient (AQ). The next step is a research survey, which includes questions about demographic information and responses to general questions about MDMA/Ecstasy use. Three additional assessments follow. Your confidentiality will be maintained at all times, and identifying information will never appear in published reports, lectures, or any other public sharing of study results.

Participants who complete all of the surveys will have the option to receive a summary report of the key findings from the finished study.

MantaRay

Re: MDMA ja oksitosiini / MDMA:n käyttö psykoterapiassa

Post by MantaRay » Wed 12 Jun 2013, 22:51

Aattelin, että voisi tämän dokkarin tänne lisätä. Koehenkilöille annettiin vajaa 100mg MDMA-hydrokloridia ja iskettiin magneettikuvaukseen.
Drugs Live: The Ecstasy Trial
Osa 1
Osa 2